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The paraspecific neutralisation of snake venom induced coagulopathy by antivenoms

Due to the geographical distribution of snake species and the different components of each toxin, anti-venom serum is produced in different regions for different snake species. The local venom-producing institutions will breed a large number of local snake species. After collecting tens of thousands of venoms, they will inject the venom into animals specially raised for this purpose, such as horses or sheep, and then repeat blood collection. Due to the long production time and labor cost factors, the cost of each complete anti-venom serum course was as high as tens of thousands of dollars, which also resulted in the groups most likely to be bitten by snakes living in the tropical countryside as the least able to afford The group of treatments.

In order to reduce the cost and use of anti-venom serum therapy, the research team led by Dr. Nick Casewell in the Astratel-Reed Snake venom Research Unit of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine in the UK challenged traditional strategies for the manufacture of anti-venom serum. The paraspecific neutralisation of snake venom-induced coagulation by an active noms. They no longer divide snake venoms into geographical regions. Instead, they classify snake venom into four categories at the pathological level: blood coagulation promotes blood flow, damages to the nervous system, and necrosis of cellular tissues. They envisaged that the production of anti-venom serum in the above four categories will be centralized and then transported to various places, which will drastically reduce their production costs.

Dr. Casewell's team first focused on promoting blood-snaking venom. They evaluated the procoagulant activity of 57 snake venoms and compared the efficacy of various anti-venom serums. They found that the molecular mechanisms of most procoagulant snake venoms target several core proteins in the coagulation cascade. They also found that some anti-venomous venoms cross-react with a variety of different snake venoms, which is consistent with previous studies. These data support their vision of classifying snake venom using pathology. Along this line of thought, they created antibodies against a snake venom but were able to neutralize a variety of snake venoms. Finally, they demonstrated that the metal chelator, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also neutralizes snake venom in small mice. These strategies have the potential to make economic alternatives to antivenoms.

Dr. Nick Casewell said: "We hope to develop a model that can be applied globally and use economies of scale to significantly reduce costs, as well as find enzymes that can replace the now extremely expensive anti-venom serum, so that low-income snakes The bite gets help."